VVS – Verkehrs- und Tariffverbund Stuttgart
Region: general vicinity of the city of Stuttgart, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
The center: Stuttgart, Germany (600,000 inhabitants)
Major cities: Esslingen (92,000), Ludwigsburg (88,000), Böblingen (46,000), Waiblingen (53,000), Weil der Stadt (19,000), Wendlingen (16,000), Plochingen (14,000) …
Area: approx. 3000 km
Population: 2.4 million
Population density: about 800 inhabitants per square km
Number of passengers: 326 million per year (of which 102 million – S-Bahn (fast commuter rail))
Stops: 3,827 total (75 S-Bahn, U-Bahn (urban light rail) 200, 144 regional trains, SSB buses (city buses in Stuttgart) 622, 2786 Regional Coaches)
Number of lines: 399 total (S-Bahn 6, U-Bahn 16, Regional trains 17, 56 SSB buses, regional buses 304)
Traffic-tariff union Stuttgart (Verkehrs-und Tariffverbund Stuttgart) operates over a wide area of the city of Stuttgart and daily connects approximately 2.4 million people. Union was officially formed in 1978. and since then the system is constantly improving and is now reaching a fully unified system that includes frequent departures of trains, buses and all other public transportations in very frequent and regular intervals. The whole area is divided into seven zones and tariff for travel, using the unique cards that are valid for all types of transport modes (public transport vehicles).
Many stations and stops are actually intermodal terminals where they generate easy transition between the same or different means of transportation.
Cycle timetables are applied by all transport modes. Density of departures depends on the time of day and the day of the week, but it was never less frequent than half an hour in the first two zones and one hour in the other zones. All parts covered by union on weekdays have departures 5-23, while the first two zones are covered until about 0:45.
Traffic-tariff union manages Transport Authority. It is a public company controlled by the system, it collects revenue, distributes income to carriers, prepares schedules, does the marketing of public transport and is engaged in the development of the system. Transport needs are determined based on a series of studies in the field that is almost constantly applied.
The system is constantly evolving andbuilding up. Thus, during the 2010. there was anothe line introduced (seventh) S-Bahn line, another U-Bahn line, one line of the U-Bahn was extended (built) from neighborhood Möhringen to neighborhood Fasanenhof.
System of traffic-tariff union in the whole of Germany is a legal requirement since 1994. The whole Germany is divided into 40 traffic areas and each is managed by individual Transport Authority.